There are set of protocols that support network. These protocols are known as internet protocol
suite. It includes,
Internet Protocol (IP) (works on the network layer of OSI model)
Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
TCP and UDP works on Transport layer of OSI model
IP is the network protocol used to send information from one computer to another over the internet.
All computers on internet communicate using IP. IP moves information contained in IP Packets. The IP
Packets are routed via special routing algorithms from source to destination. The routing algorithms
figure out the best way to send the packets from source to destination.
For this communication, there must be some address to identify the computers. All computers on the
internet are identified using one or more IP address.
A computer may have more than one IP address if it has more than one interface to computers that are
connected to the internet.
IP address are 32- bit numbers. They may be written in decimal, hexa-decimal or other formats. But the
most common format is dotted decimal notation.
This format breaks the 32-bit address into four bytes and writes each byte of the address as unsigned
decimal integers separated by dots.
For example abc.com IP address is 0XCCD499C1. Since 0XCC= 204, 0XD4 = 212, 0X99 = 153 and 0XC1=So abc.com IP address in dotted form is 188.8.131.52
It is not easy to remember the IP address. So internet has adopted a mechanism called Domain name
system (DNS), whereby computer names can be associated with IP address.
These computers names are “Domain names”. The mapping of domain names to IP address is
maintained by domain name servers.