Introduction to Embedded Systems

Embedded system is ” a combination of hardware and software to perform a specific task”

Through embedded system,one can control the hardware or electronic device by the sofware in it.

Microcontroller is the heart of the embedded system.It takes the input from hardware and performs the task as per the logic in sofware which is placed in microcontroller.

The logic or the code in microcontroller are written in Embedded C programming language.

  • Embedded C is the extension of C language.
  • It has to use with the limited resources, such as RAM, ROM, I/Os on an embedded processor.
  • Embedded C requires compilers to create files to be downloaded to the microcontrollers/microprocessors where it needs to run.

Examples of embedded system which we use in our day to day life is TV,Washing machine,Microwave,Laptop,Printer,traffic light,Wifi router,digital camera.

There are huge number of usage in medical,automotive aerospace,toys,tele -communication fields.

Components:

  • Hardware Unit
  • Software designed for application
  • Real-time operating systems(Optional for small Embedded systems)

Characteristics:

  • Serves a single operation and can be used repeatedly(Example: Digital Camera for taking photos)
  • Constraints on design like power, speed, cost, performance etc
  • Made of microprocessor or microcontroller
  • Software used for improving flexibility whereas hardware is used for security
    purposes.
IDE’s for Developing Embedded Software:
  • MPLAB
  • Arduino
  • Keil
  • Matlab
  • LabVIEW
  • PSpice
  • Proteus
  • Visual Studio
  • EasyEDA
  • Altium

These are some famous tools that are used in creating embedded system software in less time.

Scope on Embedded system:

Every industry need artifical intelligence and it can be achieved only through embedded system.

Career Opportunities in India:

Some major companies which works on Embedded system is TCS, Wipro, L&T, TATA, Elexsi, Infosys, Zensar, Tech Mahindra, Patni, Volvo, Airbus, Toshiba,Dell,BOSCH,intel and lot more.

Lot of career opportunities are available in embedded systems.some of them are follows,

  • Embedded Software/Hardware Engineer
  • Firmware designer
  • Embedded System Trainer
  • System Software Engineer
  • Application Software Engineer (device drivers)
  • Software TestEngineer/Architect
  • R & D Engineer

And experienced embedded system developers has very high demand in India.

Basic skill set needed for embedded engineers:

To be a embedded engineer,one should be strong in the following topics,

  • Proficient in C ad C++, Embedded C
  • architecture of various 8/16/32 bit microcontroller
  • Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS)
  • Basic electrical, electronics concepts
  • Serial communication interfaces SCI like RS-232,I2C,SPI
  • Communication protocals like CAN,LIN
  • Debugging skills like JTAG,DB9
  • Kernel Programming
  • Device Driver

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